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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy
Def.

Cerebral palsy is defined as a non -progressive neuromotor disorder of cerebral orgin
ethiopathogenesis
1. Maldevelopment and disorderly anatomic organisation of brain
2. Perinatal hypoxia
3. Birth trauma
4. Acid base imbalance
5. Indirect hyperbilirubenamia
6. Metabolic disturbance
7. Intra uterine or acquired infection

Pathological lesion such as cerebral atrophy porencephaly leucomalacia. Degeneration of basal ganglia  cerebelar lesion

A) SPASTIC CEREBRAL PALSY

Depending upon distribution of spasticity
it may be
1. Spastic quadriplegia
 it is more commen in term baby . Ht include opisthotonos posture ,pseudobulbar palsy ,feeding difficulties ,restricted voluntary movements. And multiple deficits .

2SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

 commoner in preterm babies  and associated with periventricular leukomalacia . the lower limbs are more severily affected with extension and adduction posturing. Brisk tendon jerks and tendency to contracture .

3.SPASTIC HEMIPLEGIA

 Recognition after 4 to 6 months age due to poor observation
Abnormal persisting fisting., abnormal posture or gait disturbance,vascular insult , porencephaly or cerebral anomalies may be associated

B) HYPOTONIC CEREBRAL PALSY

 Despite pyramidal involvement there patient are atonic or hypotonic .
tendon reflexes are normal or brisk and Babinski personse is positive .
They are often severely mentally retarded .
In cerebral involvement hypotonic is not associated with exaggerated reflexes .

C) EXTRAPYRAMIDAL CP

The clinical features include dyskinesia such as athetosis , choriform movements , dystonia tremors and rigidity
Arms legs trunks may be involved
mental retardation and hearing defect may be present .
Cerebral damage following bilirubin encephalopathy is a classical example and deafness is commonly associated.
In cerebral involvement  there is hypotonia and hyporeflexia.
Ataxia and intentional tremors appear by the age of 2yrs.

ASSOCIATED FEATURES

1. EYES
Strabismus, Paralysis of gaze,
 cataract,colobama, refractive errors.
2. Ear :) loss of hearing
3. speech aphasia ,dysarthria and  dyslalia
4. Sensory defects asereogenosis and spatial disorientation are seen.
5. generalised or focal seizures
6. Mental retardation

DIAGNOSIS

1. Suspected in following cases
low birth weight ,perinatal insult has increased tone ,feeding difficulties and does not keep pace with anticipited normal range of neurological and behavioural development .
2. evaluation of patient include perinatal history ,detailed neurological and developmental examination , electroencephalogram,psychometric  and sensory evaluation .
3. assessement of learning and language difficulties .
4. aminoaciduria should be exclude by chromatography of urine and plasma

PREVENTION

can be prevented by prevention of infection ,fetal of perinatal insult ,hmmm maternal care and freedom from postnatal damage reduce prevalance .
MANAGEMENT
1. SYMPTOMATIC treatment for seizuries.
2. Tranquilizers are administered for behaviour disturbances .
3. Muscle relaxants for improving muscle function
4. Baclofen helps to reduce spasticity ,
Diazepam ,
Dantrolene sodium  for relaxation of skeleton muscle .local phenol block .
Plastic orthoses

OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

simple movements of self help with progressive development of more intricate activities .

EDUCATIONAL

THE Defect of vision ,speech, and learning are managed by adequate
ORTHOPEDIC SUPPORT by light wt splint
SOCIAL SUPPORT TO FAMILY
REHABILITATION AND VOCATIONIBL GUIDANCE

Carcinoma of Maxillary

Carcinoma of Maxillary
Carcinoma of Maxillary 

Carcinoma of Maxillary 

AETIOLOGY

1.Worker in hardwood  furniture industry nickel refining, leather work and manufacture of mustard gas have shown higher incidence of sinunasal cancer
2.Commn in bantus of south africa where locally made snuff is used which is rich in nickel and chromium .
3. Worker of furniture industry

Disease is common in 40-60 age group with preponderance in male .

CLINICAL FEATURES

early features of maxillary sinus malignancy are
1. nasal stiffiness
2.Blood stained nasal discharge
3.Facial paraesthesias or pain and epiphora


DIRECTIN OF SPREAD AND EXTENT OF GROWTH

1.Medial spread to nasal cavity gives rise to nasal obstruction, discharge and epistaxis.
2.Anterior spread  cause swelling of the cheek and later invasion of the facial skin.
3.Inferior spread causes expansion of alveolus with dental pain ,loosening of teeth ,poor fitting of dentures. Ulceration of gingiva  and swelling in the hard palate .
4.Superior spread : invades the orbit causing proptosis ,diplopia,occular pain and epiphora.
5.Posterior spread ir into pterygomaxhllary fossa ,pterygoid plates and the musckes causing trismus. Growth may also spread to the nasopharynx,sphenoid sinus and base of skull
6.Intracranial spread
to ethmoid ,cribriform plate or foramen or foramen lacerum
7.Lymphatic spread  occur in the late stage of disease .
Submandibular and upper jugular nodes are enlarged .Maxillary and ethmoid sinuses drain primarily into retropharyngeal nodes, but these nodes are inaccessible to palpation.
8.Systemic metastases
 may be seen in the lungs and occasionally in bone


CLASSIFICATION

A] Ohngren's clas.
An imaginary line is drawn extending between medial canthus of eye & angle of mandible.
Growths situated above this plane have a poorer prognosis.

B] Lederman's clas.
It uses two lines horizontal lines of Sebileau one passing through the floors of orbits & d other through floors of antra. There r 3 parts.
1. Suprastructure. Ethmoid, sphenoid & frontal sinuses & olfactory area
2. Mesostructure. Maxillary sinus & respiratory part of nose.
3. Infrastructure. Containing alveolar process.
Vertical lines extending down d medial walls of orbit to separate ethmoid sinuses & nasal fossa fm d maxillary sinuses.

C] American Joint Committee on Cancer(AJCC) clas.
Used only 4 squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathologically it is graded as
1. Well differentiated
2. Moderately diff.
3. Poorly diff.

D] TNM Clas. & staging system.

Maxillary sinus
T1
tumor limited to maxillary sinus mucosa with no erosion or destruction of bone.
T2
tumor cousing bone erosion or destruction including extension into d hard palate & or middle nasal meatus, except extension to post. wall of maxillary sinus and pterygoid plates
T3
tumor invades any one of following. Bone of post. wall of maxillary sinus, subcutaneous tissues, floor or medial wall of orbit, pterygoid fossa & ethmoid sinuses
T4a
tumor invades ant. orbital contents, skin of cheek, pterygoid plates, infratemporal fossa, cribriform plate, sphenoid or frontal sinuses
T4b
tumor invades any of d following: orbital apex, dura, brain, middle cranial fossa, brain, cranial nerves other than maxillary division of trigeminal, nasopharynx or clivus.

Regional Lymph nodes( N )
Nx
minimum criteria of assessment cannot be met with.
No
No regional LN metastasis
N1
Metastasis in a single ipsilateral LN, 3cm or less in greatest dimension
N2a
Metastasis in a single ipsilateral LN more than 3cm but not more than 6cm in greatest dimenson
N2b
Metastasis in multiple ipsilateral LN none more than 6cm in greatest dimension
N2c
metastasis in bilateral or contralateral LN none more than 6cm in greatest dimension.
N3
Metastasis in a LN more than 6cm in greatest dimension

Distant Metastasis ( M )
Mx Distant metastasis cannot be assessed.
M0 No distant metastasis
M1 distant metastasis

STAGE GROUPING OF CANCER OF MAXILLARY SINUS
StageI. T1 N0 M0
StageII. T2 NO MO
StageIII. T3 N0 M0
          T1 orT2 orT3 with N1 M0
StageIV A. T4 N0 M0
             T4 N1 M0
StageIV B. Any T N2 M0
              Any T N3 M0
StageIV C. Any T Any N M1

DIAGNOSIS

A)Investigations
 Non Invasion
1. x rays water's view,max sinus partly
2. usg
3.CT SCAN with contrast
B)Invasive
1.Antral puncture
2.Biopsy
3.ECG

1.Radiograph of sinuses
opacity of the involved sinus with expansion and destruction  of the bony walls
2.CT scan if available this is the best non invasive method to find the extent of disease . CT scan done both in axial and coronal planes .It also helps in staging of disease.
3.BIOPSY :if growth presents in the more or mouth .Biopsy can be easily taken . In early cases ,with suspicion of malignacy ,sinus should be explored by caldwell luc operatiom .Direct visualisation  of the site of tumour in the sinus also helps in staging of the tumour .0
4.ENDOSCOPY of the nose and maxillary sinus will provide detailed examination ..
TREAMENT.
1.Surgery
2.Radiology
3.Chemotheraphy

1 .SURGERY

Maxillectomy
 two types
PARTIAL  Maxillectomy
1)vertical partial
2)horizontal partial Maxillectomy
TOTAL Maxillectomy
INCISION. 2 to 3 mm below lid margin not too far or not too close.

2. RADIOTHERAPY

a. External beam. X ray, beta rays or gamma rays using elements like co 60 and radium using proper precaution.
b. Interstitial. Beads or needle with radioactive material implanted in tumor by caldwell luc op.

3. CHEMOTHERAPY

a. Local. Through feeding vessels
b. Systemic. Used if there is distant metastasis or radio resistant or palliative care.
EG. Methotrexate, 5 fluro niacin, bleomycin


DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

1. Malignant tumors
@lymphoreticular system tumors like lymphoma, extramedullary plasmocytosis
@olfactory neurofibroblastoma
@salivary gland malignant tumors like  adenoidcystic ca, adenocarcinoma etc.
@melanoma
@sarcomas like rhabdomyosarcoma, kaposi

2. Benign tumors
hemangioma, meningioma, chondroma, angiofibroma, amyloblastoma

3. Cherubism

Carbuncle

Carbuncle
Carbuncle

Carbuncle

CARBUNCLE= this is infective gangrene of subcutaneous tissue caused by staph. aureus.         Commonly occurs in diabetic pts, poor immunity, radiotherapy pts. A)sites- nape of neck is commonest followed by back, shoulder region.  B) PATHOLOGY=   1- initial lesion is in d form of hair follicle infection with perifolliculitis. 2-infection take virulent course n results in necrosis of subcutaneous fat wich give rise to multiple absbesses.  3- these abscesses r intercommunicating n open to exterior by multiple openings. 4- this appearance is called cribriform appearance.  C)CLINICAL FEATURES= 1- typically pt is diabetic. 2- severe pain n swelling in nape of neck. 3- fever with chills n rigors r severe.     4- surface is read, angry looking like red hot coal.  5- surrounding area is indurated. 6-cribriform apperance., 7-end result is development of crateriform ulcer with central slough.  D) TREATMENT= 1- diabetes control with injectible insulin.. 2- parenteral antibiotics given..cloxacillin, flucloxacillin, erythromycin n some cephalosporins.. 3- improve gen health of pt. 4- surgery required whn thr is pus. Cruciate incision is taken. Edges of skin flap r excised. Pus is drained. Loculi r broken down, slough is excised n cavity treated wid antiseptic agents.. E)COMPLICATIONS=1- worsening of diabetic status.    2-extensive necrosis of skin..  3-septicemia, toxaemia. 

Beriberi

Beriberi
Beriberi


Beriberi

Wet beriberi =high cardiac output failure.
Dry beriberi =type of peripheral neuropathy.

Wet beriberi
 1) oriental beriberi caused by eating diets in which most calories r derived 4m polished,highly milled rice.
 2) oedema=caused by metabolites like pyruvate nd lactate which cause extreme peripheral vasodilatation nd leakage of fluid 4m capillaries.
 3) beriberi heart disease charactorised by =
 -peripheral vasodilatation
 -high cardiac output state with warn extremities.
 -biventricular failure.
 -retention of Na nd water.
 -extreme tachycardia.
 -venous congestive state charactorised by raised jvp nd tender hepatomegaly.
 -hyperdynamic circulation.
 -dyspnoea
 -cardiomegaly.

   BIOCHEMICAL TESTS
 1)measurement of bld thiamine,pyruvate nd lactate levels.
 2)whole bld or erythrocyte transketolase activity.

   MANAGEMENT
1)complete bed rest.
2)100 mg thiamine IM 4 fist 7 days, then 10 mg/day orally 4 several months.

    DRY BERIBERI
1)nutritional polyneuropathy is charactorised by symmetric impairement of sensory,motor nd reflex functions dat affect distal segments of limbs more severly dan proximal ones.
 2)histology= non inflamatory degeneration of myelin sheaths.
 3) 3 types of nervous system involved in beriberi.
 - peripheral neuropathy.
 -  cerebral beriberi
 - Korsakoffs syndrome.

    INFANTILE BERIBERI
seen in breast feed infants of thiamine deficent mothers.Usual age of onset is 2-3 months.

BHP

BHP
BHP



BHP
Aetiopathogenesis_
there r 2 theories to explain BPH
1 Harmonal theory_as the age avances,the level of androges comes down.There is corresponding increase in the oestrogen which stimulates the prostate gland n produce BPH.
2 neoplastic theory_according to this theory there is proliferation of all the elements of prostate_fibrous,musculaq n glandular resulting in fibromyoadenoma.
Clinical features_
1 frequency
to start with,frequecy is present
duing the day time followed by day n night.-5 to 10 times during during the night.It is due ineffective emptyinp of the bladder.It result in residual urine in the bladder precipitating cystitis.
2 urgency_as the prostate enlarges there is visceral introversion of sensitive mucous membrane of prostatic urethra within the bladder.This causes the internal spincter to streth n prevents contraction.This result in urgency.
3 Hesitancy_pt hesitate to pass urine because micturation is not effective due to obstruction.
4 haematuria is rare.
5 BPH can b present with acute retention of urine
6 complications like stones,diverticuli,renal failure.
Diagnosis of BPH-per rectal examination-enlarge lat lobe can b easily felt.Rectal mucosa is free.
Investiagations_
1 blood urea n creatinine_ raised level indicate renal failure.
2 uroflowmetry_person is asked to void urine frm his full bladder into flowmeter.The flow rate is assesed.
Normal peak flow rate is 20 ml/sec.Doubtfull peak obstruction._10-15 ml/sec.
Definite peak obstruction_less than 10 ml/sec.
3  ultrasonogram-to asses the size n wt of prostate,to assess the residual urine n to look for hydrouretonephrosis
4 IVP to study the renal changes in selected cases.
5 cystoscopy as part of treatment.
Treatment_
1 medical treatment_
if the pt has mere frequency of micturation, n if the residual urine is not much,uroflowmetry shows more than 15 ml/sec of urine flow,the pt can b reassuared n advise to avoid heavy alcohol consumption which may lead to prostatic congestion n acute retention of urine.To avoid overdistension of bladder,he has to void the urine as n when he feel the urinary sensation of micturation.
Drugs_fibnasteride acetate
5 mg daily for 6 mönths.
Alpha adrenargic blocker relax the internal spincter for better drainage of the bladder.
2 surgical treatment_
indication_1 acute retention of urine
2 chronic retention of urine with posvoidal urine more than 200 ml
3 if the frequency of micturation is so much that it disturb the normal life style during day time.
4 complication like haematuria.
Surgical method-
1 transvesical suprapubic prostatectomy_this method is now restricted to gland more than 100 gm in wt.
Through an extraperitoneal approch the bladder is opened,prostate is enucleated with finger,bleeding is controlled by inflating foley bulb with about 30-50 ml of air n by ligature.
Bladder is drained by malecots catheter.
2 transurethral resection of prostate _most popular method today.
A rectoscope is passd to urethra n under vision with constant irrigation with water,prosate is resected into multiple piece n removed.Haemostasis is achieved with the help of cautery.
3 retropubic prostectomy.
4 perineal prostatectomy.

Biliary cirrhosis

Biliary cirrhosis
Biliary cirrhosis


Biliary cirrhosis

Biliary cirrhosis is the cirrhosis of the liver secondary to prolonged obstruction of biliary system, anywhere between the interlobular bile ducts and the papilla of Vater. Obstruction results in progressive destruction of bile ducts.

Primary biliary cirrhosis.
Occurs in chronic inflammation and obliteration of intrahepatic bike ducts.
Aetiology.
Mac predominantly in females in the middle age.
Due to immune reactions resulting in liver damage.

Pathology.
Chronic granulomatous inflammation destroying the interlobular ducts, Resulting in fibrosis and later cirrhosis of the livers and its complications.

Clinical features.
1. Cardinal features are pruritis, hyperpigmentation, and jaundice.
2. Liver involvement.
 Progressive jaundice, later becomes intense.
 Patients acquires a ' bottle green colour'.
 Scratch marks, froger clubbing.
 Hepatospleenomegaly.
 Hepatocellular failure, portal hypertension and ascitis.
3. Hypercholesterolaemia.
 Xanthelasmas around the eyes.
 Xanthomas over joints, tendons, hand creases, elbows and knees.
 Pain, tingling and numbness over feet and hands due to peripheral neuropathy resulting from lip infiltration of peripheral nerves.
4. Malabsorption
 steatorrhoea and diarrhoea  from malabsorption of fat.
 Easy bruising and ecchymosis from vitamin K deficiency.
 Hepatic osteodystrophy -
 might blindness due to vitamin A deficiency.

Investigations.
 Hyperbilirubinaemia of conjugated type.
 Mile elevation of transaminases.
 Two to five dole rise of serum alkaline phosphatase.
 Marked rise of serum 5'- nucleotidase activity
 hyperlipidaemia.
 More than 90% of the patients have antimitochondrial antibodies and increased levels of cryoproteins consisting of immune complexes.
 Antinuclear, antismooth muscle antibodies.
 Lives biopsy confirms the diagnosis.

Management.
Ursodeoxycholic acid(10-15mg/kg) improves bilirubin and aminotransferase values.
 Steroids may improve biochemical and histological disease but may lead to osteoporosis.
 Other therapies azathioprine, colchicine, methottrexate.
 Steatorrhoea is treated by limiting eat intake and substituting long chain triglycerides with medium chain triglycerides in the diet.
 Monthly injections of vitamin K.
 Vitamin D 1mg/day.
 Calcium supplementation in the form of calcium gluconate 2-4 g/day.
 Airpinsignocter to reduce osteoporosis.
 Lives transplantation.
 Management of pruritis.
 *cholestyramine 4-16 g/day.
 *Rifampicin, ondansetron and opiate antagonists.

Secondary biliary cirrhosis.
*results from prolonged obstruction to large bike duct by ;
 stones.
 Bile duct strictures.
 Sclerosing cholangitis.

Clinical features
1. Recurrent abdominal pain in stones.
2. Fluctuating jaundice in stones.3. Previous history of abdominal surgery in strictures.
4. Chronic cholestasis with episodes of ascending cholangitis and even lives abscess.
5. Right upper quadrant pain due to cholangitis or biliary colic
6. Cirrhosis, ascites and portal hypertension are late features.
Investigations.
1 hyperbilirubinaemia of the conjugated type.
2. Markedly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity.
3. Ultrasound and CT of abdomen.
4 .ERCP.
5. Lives biopsy.

Treatment.
1. Relief of obstruction to bike flow by ERCP or surgery.
2. Antibiotics in sclerosing cholangitis.

Blind loop syndrome

Blind loop syndrome
Blind loop syndrome



Blind loop syndrome

Also called small bowel bacterial ovnrgrowth..
Disorders which impair normal physiological mechanisms controlling bacterial overgrowth.
.Most imp coz r 1. loss of gastric acidity
.2.Impaired intestinal motility
.3..Structural abnormalites
.C/F=
.Pt present with watery diarrhoea nd steatorrhoea with anemia due to b12 vitamin defi.
.INVESTIGATion =
.Serum vitamin b12 conc low
.Barium study or small bowel enema reveal blind loops or fistulae
.Endoscopic duodenal biopsies exclude mucosal disease
.Endoscopic aspiratn of jejunal contents
.MANAGEMENT =
.Tetracycline 250 mg 6 hry for 7 days
.Metronidazole 400 mg 8 hrly
.Intramuscular vita.B12 supplementatn

BlooD stained nipple Discharge and Investigations

BlooD stained nipple Discharge and Investigations
BlooD stained nipple Discharge and Investigations


BlooD stained nipple Discharge and Investigations

Causes
1. Duct papilloa
2. Duct carcinoma
3. Duct ectasia__rarely

¤ InvestigationS
1. Complete blood picture...Hb%
2. Chest x ray
3. Ultrasound
4. FNAC
5. Mammography
6. Bone scan
7. Culture and sensitivity of discharge

Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion
Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion

Bld infused as whole bld or component infusion.
1>packed red cells-
  a> increse o2 carrying capacity of bld
  b> improve platelet function
 c> 1 unit rbc-rise in hb of 1g/dl in adult

Indication 4 rbc transfusion
a> symptomatic anaemia,bleding patient
b> hb <7 g/dl
c> hb <10g/dl in acute MI,CHf,angina tia,syncope
d> hb<8 g/dl in thalasemia

2>platelet rich plasma-
a> when bleding due 2 reduced platelet or inadeqate platelet function
b> 1 PRP increases plate count by 4000-8000/mm3
c> Abo matching required

indication 4 platelet tranfusion-
a> microvascular bleding due 2 thrombocytopenia
b> thrombocytopenia wth risk of haemorrage
c> surgical procedure.
C/I
a>thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

3>fresh frozen plasma
ABO matching required Rh compactibility not required.
Indication-
a> factor 5 n 11 def
b> dilutional coagulopathy
c> coagulopathy of liver diseses
d> HELLP Syndrome e>reversal of warferin anticoagulation

4>cryoprecipitate
indications
a> factor 8 def
b> von willebrand disease
c> hypofibrinogenemia wth <100 mg/dl c>factor 13 def

COMPLICATION-
a> immunological reaction-

 1> acute haemolytic transfusion reaction-due 2 incompatible donor red cells
  C/F-fever chills back pain pruritus burning sensation hypotension shock oliguria Management -
  a> stop tranfusion
  b> change BT set
  c> physical exam wth BP Urine output
  d> wthdraw bld fm oposite arm n send 4 screening
  e> if hypotension administer fluid
  f> add frusemide

2>febrile non haemolytic reaction
 a> due 2 antileucocytic Ab in pregnant pt
 b> due 2 cytokines in stored platelet

3>urticaria
  due 2 prence of Ab in recipient bld 2 infused plasma protein

4>anaphylaxis
  In pt wth Ab against IgA

5> tranfusion related acute lung injury-
  a>donar plasma has Ab 2 pt lecocytes
  b>pt devel acute resp reaction wth fever cough shortnes of breath

6>delayed haemolytic tranfusion reaction-3 -21 day after tranfusion

7>tranfusion asso graft vs host disease-a>due 2 immune reaction of donor T cells
C/f
fever skin rash liver n renal failure n pancytopenia

8> post tranfusion purpura-
  a> imune mediated thrombocytopenia
  b> 5-12 day after transfusion

NON IMMUNE reaction
a> circulatory overload
b> air n fat embolism
c> thrombophlebitis

Breath holding spells

Breath holding spells
Breath holding spells


Breath holding spells

Def: these r reflexive events in whch typicaly dere is provoking event that causes Anger, frustration, and chld start 2 cry.
_crying stops at ful expiration whn chld become cyanotic, apneic and pale.
_in some cases euents continue, chld may lose consciousnes, muscle tone and fal on ground
_seizures seen in 4_5% cases
_they start mostly at 6_18 months of age but may occur at 2 months
_they may b Cyanotic or Pallid depending on d childs colour during events

¤ D/D of BHS
_seizure, cardiac arrhythmiyas, brain stem tumors oi malformations
_hstry of provoking events and color change b4 los of consciousnes helps to distinguish BHS 4m seizures

¤ Management
_for pallid spells evaluate d chld 4 conditions asso. Vth d cardiac arrhxthmiya such as long QT interval
_parental reasurance dat the spels wil nt harm d chld
_Rx. With iron
(elemental 3mg/kg/day)
_

Brestfeeding

Brestfeeding
Brestfeeding

Brestfeeding

It is ideal form of infant feeding.
Types 1)Exclusive brstfdng .
  2)predom.brstfng.
  3)partial '
RECCOMENDATIONS
Intiated as soon as posble aftr birth.
Nothing shd b gvn befr initiation.
Exclusive for 6mts.
Deemand feeding.
Complementary foods aftr 6mts.
Continue wd semisolid fd upto 2yr
Motivated educated.
ADVANTAGES FOR BABY MOTHER & FAMILY.
1)Nutritive value & digestibility.
 protines ,fat ,minerals.
2)Lower risk of infection
 Clean & uncontaminated
 Several antiinfective factors secetry IgG ,IgM,lysozyme,antistaphylococcal factor ,inhibitory sub against viral infn,
Lactoferrin inhibit enterobact.
Bifidus fctr against E coli
PABA agaimst malaria.
3)Protects frm allergy
4)physiological adaptation
if deliverd prematurely,secrets milk that is easily digested.
5)Emotional bonding
6)Maternal advantages lactation suppress ovulation.
Lowers risk of ovarian &breast cancr.
7)Econmic fctrs
8)other benefts higher IQ, No hyprtensn,obesity ,chd,dm.

Brodie's abscess

Brodie's abscess
Brodie's abscess

Brodie's abscess

DEF.
It is a special type of osteomyelitis in which the body defense mechanisms have been able to contain the infection so as to create a chronic bone abscess containing pus or jelly like granulation tissue surrounded by a zone of sclerosis.

C/F.
1. Age is usually betn 11 to 20yrs.
2. Commonest sites r upper end of tibia & lower end of femur.
3. It is usually located at d metaphysis.
4. A deep boring pain is d predominant symptom. It may worsen @ night.
5. In some instances it becomes worse on walking & is relieved by rest.
6. Occasionally, there may be a transient effusion in adjacent joint during exacerbation of d symptom.
7. Examination reveals tenderness & thickening of bone.

RADIOLOGY.
1. The radiological picture is diagnostic.
2. It shows a circular or oval lucent area surrounded by a zone of sclerosis.
3. The rest of bone is normal.

TREATMENT.
1. It is by operation.
2. Surgical evacuation & curettage is performed under antibiotic cover.
3. If d cavity is large, it is packed with cancellous bone chips.

Bronchial Asthma

Bronchial Asthma
Bronchial Asthma


Bronchial Asthma

Def....It is characterised by an increasd responsiveness of d trachea and bronchi to various stimuli
_it manifests by widespread narrowing of airway causing Paroxysmal dyspnna, wheezing, cough
_it is commenest chronic illness during childhood

¤Risk factors
_family history of asthma and atopic dise.
_bronchiolitis during infancy
_pasive smoking
_sensitisation 2 allergins during childhood

¤Pathophysiology
_airway obstruction in asthma causd by
1) edema and inflamation of mucous membrne lining airway
2) excessive secretin of mucus, inflamatory cells, and cellular debris
3) spasm of smooth muscle of bronchi
¤Classification
1) extrinsic_IgE mediated, trigered by allergin
2) intrinsic_not igE mediated and triggerd by infection
3) mixed, exercise induced, aspirin induced

¤Pathology
_airway inflammation is d basic pathology in asthma

#Triggers of an Attack of asthma
_Allergy
_viral infection e.g. RSV
_exercise
_weather changes
_emotional stress

¤Clinical Features
_recurrent cough to severe wheezing
_cough is non productive
_dyspnea
_in sevre cases sweating,cyanoshs, restless and get fatigued

¤investigations
_pf test
_chst x ray
_allergy tert

¤D/D
_Bronchiolitis
_congenital malformation
_aspiratiön of foreign body
_extrensic allergic alveolitis

¤Long term management of Asthma
Goals of therapy..
_maintenance of normal pulmonary functin, near normal physical activity
_prevention of night time cough or wheezing
_prevention of exacerbation of asthma
_avoiding adverse effects of medication

#proper treatmenT
1) identification and elimination of Exacerbating factors.
2) PharMacotherpy
_bronchodialators
_corticosteroids
_mast cell stabilizer
_leukotriene antagonists
_theophylline
_immuotherapy

Bronchiectasis

Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis


Bronchiectasis


Permanent abnormal dilatation of one or more bronchi due to the destruction of elastic n muscular components of d bronchial wall.

CLASSIFICATION
1 SACCULAR BRONCHIECTASIS
 - Occurs in d proximal large bronchi
 - bronchi shows large dilatation, ending in large sacs.

2 CYLINDRICAL
 - Invoves d airway frm 6th to 10th generation.
 - bronchi look cylindrical or beaded.

3 VARICOSE
 - Bronchi resemble varicose vein

AETIOLOGY
CONEINITAL
 bronchial cysts, bronhomalacia, cystic fibrosis,

ACUQIRED( chldren )
necrotizing pneumonias, primary. TB,etc

ACUQIRED( adults )
 pulmonary TB, suppurative pneumoias. Postoperative bronchiectesis, tumour or froeign body etc

PATHOLOGY
 - Characteristic faature is multiple bronchiectatic cavities.
 - left lung is involve mor than right
 - lower lobe is involve mor than upper
 - common site- lower lobe, lingula, n middile lobe.

C/F
 - chronic cough wit sputum production , haemoptysis n recurrent pneumonias.
 - sputun is copious, purulent n foul smelling. Maximun in 1st 2 hrs after waking up.
 - tree layer sputum - mucoid layer on d top, mucnpurulent in d middle n purulen at d bottom.
 - haemoptysis is due to rupture of d thin walled vessels.
 - dyspnoea n wheezing
 - systemic symp. Like fiver, wt loss, anaemia, night sweats n weakness.

PHYSICAL FINDING
 - gen. Exam^- anaemia, clubbing. Five, halitosis n sinusitis.
 - bilateral, basal, coarse, leathery creapitation.

INVESTIGATIONS.
 - BLOOD- anaemia, raise ESR n leucocytosis.
 - URINE- proteinuria wit anyloidosis
 - SPUTUM - gm stain. zn stain, culture sensitivity.
 - CHEST X ray- usually norm. Cystic or saccular type diagnosed by multiple 1 to cm cystic lesion wit or witout fluid levels.
 - ECG usually norm.
 - BRONCHOSCOPY
 - BRONCHOGRAPHY
 - CT SCAN
 - PULMONARY FUNCT^ TEST - may shows obstruction.
 - ARTEIAI BLOOD GAS STUDIES-shows respiratory alkolosis or hypoxaemia
 - IMMUNOLGIC SURVEY

COMPLICTION
 - Haemoptysis
 - Pneumonia
 - Lung abscess
 - Septicaemia
 - Brain absces
 - Respirtotry failure
 - Emphyema

MANAGEMENT
1 Treat underlying cause
2 Drainage
3 Antibiotics
 - choic depends on culture n sensitivity
 - mild- oral agent like amoxicillin, amphicillin, tetracyclin, cotrimoxazole. Shud b use
 - sever- parentral antibiotic used
4 Bronchodilators
 - it improve obstruction n aid clearance of secreation.
5 Surgical treatment
- Indications.
 - child or young adult wit localised lesion
 - recurrent haemoptysis
 - recurrent localised pneumonias.
6 Other
 - cigarette smoking should b stop
 - episodes of sinusitis should b treat promptly.
 - complicated case may require nasal oxyen on a chronic basis.

                       -by pam

Bromchoscopy

Bromchoscopy
Bromchoscopy


Bromchoscopy
 It is the direct visualisation of the trachiobronchial tree by an endoscopic instrument
2 types_
1>rigid
2>flexible

indications
A)dignostic-a)to find out d cause of wheezing haemoptysis & pulmonary pneumonia
b)malignancy
c)tb
d)tracheobronchial foreign bodies
B)theraputic
a)removal of foreign body
b)removal of secretions or mucus plug in case of head injury & chest trauma
c)excision of granulations & small tumors
d)dilatation of tracheal stenosis
contraindications=
emergency bronchoscopy has no contraindication
    elective bronchoscopy has following contraindications
1)trismus may make d procedure difficult
2)diseases of cervical vertible column
3)aortic aneurysm
4)haemoptysis
investigations=
1)radiography
2)ct scan
3)sputum exam
4)tomography& bronchography
5)general-fitness
Procedure=
A>anasthesia-
rigid-general anaesthesia
flexible fibre optic-local anaesthdsia
 B>positinn-supine position with flexion of d neck & extension of d head
Steps=
1>introduction-lips r retracted.scope is passed transorally along the tounge till epiglotis is seen...Then it is passed into laryngeal inlet
2)tracheo bronchial tree-it is passed down into larynx & trachea it is confirmed by visualisation of tracheal ring & d movement of chest
Complications=
1)cardiac arrest
2)respiratory arrest
3)dislocation of cervical vertibal column
4)recurrance of residual disease
5)damage to teeth tounge

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